There are an estimated 900 to 1,500 different languages, but many distinct political units share a common or similar language (as among the Yoruba, Hausa, and Swahili-speaking peoples).
Those areas reflect differences in the cultural adaptation of traditional societies to varying natural habitats.
For the purposes of this discussion, the principal regions are northern, western, west-central, eastern, and Central and Southern Africa; Madagascar is also included.
"Among gay and bisexual men living with diagnosed HIV, 61 per cent have achieved viral suppression, more than in previous years, but well short of where we want to be," they said.
"More work is needed to close this gap and to address the barriers that make it more difficult for some gay and bisexual men, including African American and Hispanic/Latino men, to get HIV care and treatment." Both socioeconomic and cultural problems needed to be overcome so more people achieved viral suppression, they said, including low education and stigma around the disease.
Attendant, but unassociated, with the scramble, French and Italian settlers also established new communities in North Africa and, to some extent, western Africa.
Much earlier, in several waves of migrations beginning in the 7th century, Arabs spread across northern Africa and, to a lesser extent, into western Africa, bringing a new religion (Islam) and a new language (Arabic), along with some new cultural and political institutions.
North Africa from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Nile River delta has been the site of conquests and movements of peoples for thousands of years.
Along the east coast, trading cities arose and fell, cities that had overseas contacts during the past two millennia with peoples of southern Arabia and as far east as India and Indonesia.
Internal movements during that time contributed to the heterogeneity and complexity of native African societies.